Aug 30, 2014

Electric Potential and Potential Difference



The definition of electrical potential is that the ability of charged particles to try to do the work. The unit of electrical potential is volts.

When 2 equally charged particles are brought close to, they fight to repel one another whereas dissimilar charges attract one another. This means, each charged particle incorporates a tendency to try to do work.

The electrical potential at a purpose owing to a charge "is one potential unit if one joule of work is done in delivery a unit positive charge i.e. positive charge of 1 coulomb from time thereto purpose,
Mathematically it's expressed as,
Electric potential = Work done / charge
                             = W/Q

In electrical circuits flow of current is usually from higher electric potential to lower electric potential. I.e. The distinction between the electrical potential at any 2 offer points in a very circuit is thought as potential. This can be known as between the 2 points and measured in volts. It’s denoted as V.

For illustration, let the electric potential of a charged particle A is say V1 whereas the electric potential of a charged particle B is say V2. Then the potential between the 2 particles A and B is V1-V2. If V1-V2 is positive we are saying that A is at higher potential than B whereas if V1-V2 is negative we are saying that B is at higher potential than A.

Consider 2 points having potential of V volts between them, as shown within the fig. The point A is at upper potential than B. As per the definition of potential unit, the V joule of work is to be performed to maneuver unit charge from point B to point A.
potential-difference
Thus, once such 2 points, that are at totally different potentials are joined in conjunction with the assistance of wire, the electrical current flows from higher potential to lower potential i.e. the electrons begin flowing from lower potential to higher potential thus, to take care of the flow of electrons i.e. flow of electric current, there should exist a potential between the 2 points.






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