Aug 28, 2014

Hysteresis losses, Eddy current losses and Copper Losses in Transformer



magnetic-flux-concentrated-in-the-iron-core
The capability of iron or steel to hold magnetic flux is way larger than it's in air, and this capability to permit magnetic flux to flow is termed as porosity. Most transformer winding cores are created from low carbon steels which might have permeability’s within the order of 1500 compared with simply 1.0 for air.

This means that a steel laminated core will transmit a magnetic flux 1500 times higher than that of air. However, once a magnetic flux flows in an exceedingly transformers steel core, 2 kinds of losses occur within the steel. One is named as “eddy current losses” and also the different is named as “hysteresis losses”.

Hysteresis Losses

Hysteresis Losses are triggered owing to the rubbing of the molecules against the flow of the magnetic lines of force needed to magnetize the core, that are perpetually dynamical in value and direction 1st in one direction then the opposite because of the influence of the sinusoidal voltage.

hyeteresis-curve

This molecular brushing causes heat to be established that represents an energy loss to the transformer. Exciting heat loss will intensely shorten the lifetime of the insulating materials utilized in the manufacture of the windings and structures. Therefore, cooling of a transformer is vital.

Also, transformers are deliberate to work at a specific provide frequency. Dropping the frequency of the availability can lead to enhanced hysteresis and better temperature within the iron core. Therefore reducing the availability frequency from 60 Hz to 50 Hz can raise the quantity of hysteresis existent, small the VA capability of the transformer.

Hysteresis losses in transformer is referred as :
                                               Wh= Khf(Bm)1.6 watts
Where Kh= Hysteresis constant

Eddy Current Losses

Eddy Current Losses on the opposite hand are affected by the flow of flowing currents evoked into the steel caused by the drift of the magnetic flux round the core. These flowing currents are generated as a result of to the magnetic flux the core is performing sort of a single loop of wire. Since the iron core could be a smart conductor, the eddy currents evoked by a cast-iron core are going to be massive.

Eddy currents don't contribute something towards the quality of the transformer however instead they oppose the flow of the evoked current by acting sort of a negative force generating resistive heating and power loss inside the core.

Eddy current losses inside of the transformer core can't be eliminated fully; however they will be significantly decreased and controlled by dipping the thickness of the steel core. Rather than having one massive cast-iron core because the core material of the winding, the magnetic path is get a divorce into several skinny ironed steel shapes known as “laminations”.

Lamination of core

lamination-of-core
The laminations utilized in transformer construction are terribly skinny strips of insulated metal joined along to provide a solid however laminated core as we have a tendency to saw on top of. These laminations are insulated from one another by a coat of glaze or paper to extend the real resistivity of the core thereby increasing the general resistance to bind the movement of the eddy currents.

The results of all this insulation is that the annoying evoked eddy current power-loss within the core is greatly reduced, and it's for this reason why the magnetic iron circuit of each transformer and different electro-magnetic machines are all laminated. Exploitation laminations in an exceedingly transformer construction reduce eddy current losses. 

The fatalities of energy, which seems as heat due each to hysteresis and to eddy currents within the magnetic path, is understood unremarkably as “transformer core losses”. Since these losses occur altogether magnetic materials as a results of alternating magnetic fields. Transformer core losses are continually existent in an exceedingly transformer whenever the first is energized, although no load is connected to the coil. Conjointly these hysteresis and also the eddy current losses are typically noted as “transformer iron losses”, because the magnetic flux inflicting these losses is constant in any respect of loads.

Eddy Current losses in transformer is referred as:
                                                       We=Kef2K2fB2m watts
Where,
Ke = Eddy Current constant
Kf = form constant

Copper Losses

But there's conjointly another style of energy loss related to transformers known as “copper losses”. Transformer copper losses are primarily because of the transformer leading and secondary windings. Most transformer windings are made of copper wire that has resistance in Ohms, (Ω). These resistances compete against the magnetizing currents flowing from end to end them.

When a load is coupled to the transformers coil, massive electrical currents flow in each the first and also the secondary windings, current and power (or the I2R) losses happen as heat. Typically copper losses differ with the load current, being nearly zeroed at no-load, and at a most at full-load once current flow is at most.

A Transformer VA rating is enhanced by higher design and transformer construction to cut back these core and copper losses. Transformers with large voltage and current ratings need conductors of huge crosswise to assist minimize their copper losses. Increasing the speed of warmth dissipation (better cooling) by forced air or oil, or by up the transformers insulation in order that it'll face up to higher temperatures may increase a transformers VA rating.

Copper losses in transformer is referred as:
                                                             I2LR'2 + Stray loss
Where,
IL = Transformer load
R'2 = Resistance on the secondary side of transformer
Then we will outline a perfect transformer as having:
  • There will not be any Hysteresis loops or hysteresis losses.
  • Boundless Resistivity of core material giving zero Eddy current losses.
  • Zero winding resistance giving zero I2R copper losses.


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