Oct 16, 2013

Power Quality Theory


Power quality is just the interaction of power with electrical instrumentation. If electrical instrumentation operates properly and faithfully while not being broken or stressed, we'd say that the power is of fine quality. On the opposite hand, if the electrical instrumentation malfunctions, is unreliable, or is broken throughout traditional usage, we'd suspect that the ability quality is poor.

As a general statement, any deviation from traditional of a voltage supply (either DC or AC) will be classified as an influence quality issue. Power quality problems will be terribly high-speed events like voltage impulses / transients, high frequency noise, wave shape faults, voltage swells and sags and total power loss. Every form of electrical instrumentation is going to be affected otherwise by power quality problems. By analyzing the power and evaluating the instrumentation or load, we will confirm if an influence quality drawback exists. See Power Quality events for a lot of elaborate description of power quality issues.

A power grid is it comprises a generating station, a transmission network, a sub transmission network and a distribution network. These sub-systems are interconnected over transformers T1, T2 and T3. Let think through some X-country, take into account some usual voltage levels to perceive the functioning of the power system. The electrical power is generated at a thermal plant with a typical voltage of 22KV. This is increased up to levels similar to 400KV through power transformer T1 for power transmission. Power Transformer T2 steps down this voltage to 66KV to provide power through the sub transmission line to industrialized loads that need greater part power at a high voltage. Most of the important industrialized consumers have their particular transformers to step-down the 66KV provide to their desired levels. The inspiration for these voltage alterations is to reduce transmission line value for a specified level of power. Distribution network are designed to work for a lot of lesser power levels and are provided with average level voltages.

The energy distribution system starts with electrical device Transformer T3 to step-down the voltage level from 66KV to 11KV. The distribution network comprises load that are any business sort (like workplace buildings, vast housing complexes, hotels etc.) or domestic sort. Typically the business customers are provided power at a voltage level of 11 KV whereas the residential consumers get power at 400-440 V. Note that the above fig are assumed for line-line voltages. Since residential consumers get single-phase supply, they typically receive 230 V-250 V at their points. Whereas a domestic client with small power consumption acquires a single phase supply, each industrial and business customers get 3­ phase supply not solely as a result of their consumption is high however additionally as a result of several of them use 3 phase motors. For instance, the usage of induction motor is terribly common between industrial customers who run compressors, pumps, rolling mills etc.


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